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Apiarist / Beekeeper
Beekeepers look after apiaries or beehive sites, with the main aim of producing honey. They are also known as apiculturists, bee farmers or apiarists. The hives produce honey, wax, pollen and other products for sale to the public. They also provide pollination services to horticultural and seed crop producers. Bees are an excellent aid in pollination, thus farmers growing fruit, vegetable crops and seeds make use of this service.

Apiarists need to have a thorough knowledge of the yearly cycle and habits of bees, plant types and life cycles, and how plants produce nectar. They need to be able to identify bee disease and know about different methods of disease control and how to introduce a queen bee into a colony.

Beekeepers’ tasks vary depending on the season. In the breeding season (spring) they: check the food supply, health and laying ability of the queen bee and check the hives to prevent swarming. They breed replacement queen bees; shift hives to orchards and collect the hives when the flowering period is over. During spring they might also provide a pollination service by renting hives to orchards / farms. In summer they visit apiaries and place boxes on hives to prepare for honey production. In autumn (harvest time) they take bees off combs or use a blower and collect the honey. They extract honey from the comb using extractors, containers that rotate quickly separating the comb from the honey at the honey-house and may send the honey away in containers for further processing into retail packs, usually glass jars. They may also collect other bee products, such as pollen and wax, and collect and package bees for export.

Once hives have been prepared, sheets of wax embossed with a honeycomb imprint are inserted. During autumn, they also feed hives to ensure that they have sufficient food until spring.

Throughout the year beekeepers build and repair hives and divide colonies for replacement or to increase bee numbers. They continually inspect hives using hive tools and a smoker and check hives for pests, parasites and diseases, destroying diseased bees and hives where necessary. They may analyse and test micro-organisms themselves or send them away to be analysed.

They need heavy machinery, such as trucks and tractors, driving skills; mechanical skills for repairing equipment are also useful. They should have carpentry skills for building and repairing hive boxes and be familiar with methods of building hives etc.

If involved in production and marketing of other bee products, apiculturists also need to be able to assess the quality of bee products such as wax, royal jelly and propolis, and know how to handle them. They need marketing and business skills, especially if involved in retail or business management.

Anyone can keep a beehive, but each apiary site must be registered with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to help monitor diseases that affect bees. Many apiarists struggle to make a living from just selling honey, so they may work as apiary advisors or laboratory diagnosticians.

Satisfying Aspects
- working outdoors
- variety of work
- being your own boss
- producing a natural, marketable and popular food
- always learning more about bees, hives, etc

Demanding aspects
- mostly poor financial rewards
- some travelling and being away from home
- being stung and possibly developing an allergy to beestings
- sometimes having to work in poor weather conditions

- good bee-handling skills, knowing when and how to approach bees
- like bees and not be afraid of stings
- good organization and time management skills
- good oral and written communication skills
- concerned about environmental issues
- self-motivated and willing to work hard
- able to plan ahead
- able to accurately record information
- enjoy working outside
- good eyesight
- fit and healthy, with no allergies to bee stings or pollen

School Subjects
No specific educational requirements

Compulsory subjects: None
Recommended subjects: Mathematics, English, Life Sciences and Physical Sciences

Mostly beekeeping skills are learned on the job. Employers may support beekeepers in gaining their heavy trade and forklift licences or assist them to complete training courses, such as disease control.

Beekeepers may do a Certificate in Beekeeping. A degree in zoology may be useful. Courses are available full-time or by correspondence.

- farms
- specialized beekeeping farms
- government departments, such as agriculture and forestry
- self-employment

Department of Agriculture
Private Bag X250
Pretoria, 0001
Tel: (012) 319-7328